Max Weber, an influential German sociologist, said in 1918:
the state is a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.
This statement is used as the argument for policing, criminal justice, prisons, war and all manner of violent acts initiated by the state that cause harm to its people.
Note that he said ‘territory’ not ‘people’, and that he said it immediately after Germany lost the Great War.
Weber, a Prussian by birth, was raised by a strict pro-Bismark politician and a strict puritan Protestant and grew up in Berlin surrounded by the political elite that were promoting the development and growth of a united Germany on the world stage. He was a strong proponent of liberal imperialism: imperial expansionism that would allow Germany to compete with France and Britain.
He had identified a strong correlation between capitalist success in Germany and Protestantism. This he attributed to predestination associated with protestant puritanism that was elsewhere suppressed by the Catholic Church.
During the Great War, Weber argued for strength and unity for Germany. In 1916 he said the conquered nations of Europe should, in Germany’s long-term interests, remain as independent political countries within the greater German economy. In 1917 he was one of those advocating ceasing the war, when Germany put the proposition to the Allies to leave the boundaries at their new positions based on the front line, that is, accept Germany had won. This would allow the extended Germany to keep Belgium and other territories gained in the war to that point. Unfortunately for Germany, the Allies decided to fight on.
During the Great War, Germany had committed ‘the Rape of Belgium’. This was the taking from Catholic Belgium – at that time one of the world’s largest and most modern industrialised economies – of its machines and resources. Its male population was transported to Germany to provide forced labour for the German war industry. Belgium was stripped of its factories and experience and has never recovered from what Germany did.
After the Great War, discussions took place in Paris about what reparations Germany should be making for what it did in Northern France and Belgium. It was during these discussions that Max Weber, pro-German, anti-Catholic, pro-capitalist gave his speech about the state being entitled to use violence within its territory. That is, that Germany was perfectly entitled to do what it like to Belgium as it was German conquered territory.
That his quote “the state is a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory” is still used today as an excuse for police brutality, the death penalty and genocide is beyond my comprehension. Max Weber was an apologist for this worst atrocities Germany committed in the Great War and his defence of Germany in the context of a horrific war in which war crimes and genocide occurred is being used today in modern democracies to excuse immense social harms committed by states upon their citizens.
And yet he is considered a founding father of modern social science and this quote appears in text books as an essential foundation for functioning societies.
Some more of his statements from that period of the post-war German revolution:
The decisive means for politics is violence.
the world is governed by demons and that he who lets himself in for politics, that is, for power and force as means, contracts with diabolical powers and for his action it is not true that good can follow only from good and evil only from evil, but that often the opposite is true.
Whoever wants to engage in politics at all, and especially in politics as a vocation…lets himself in for the diabolic forces lurking in all violence.